About Suicide


The following list is from the SPRC Warning Signs page.

Immediate Risk

Some behaviors may indicate that a person is at immediate risk for suicide.

The following three should prompt you to immediately call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255) or a mental health professional.

  • Talking about wanting to die or to kill oneself
  • Looking for a way to kill oneself, such as searching online or obtaining a gun
  • Talking about feeling hopeless or having no reason to live

Serious Risk

Other behaviors may also indicate a serious risk—especially if the behavior is new; has increased; and/or seems related to a painful event, loss, or change.

  • Talking about feeling trapped or in unbearable pain
  • Talking about being a burden to others
  • Increasing the use of alcohol or drugs
  • Acting anxious or agitated; behaving recklessly
  • Sleeping too little or too much
  • Withdrawing or feeling isolated
  • Showing rage or talking about seeking revenge
  • Displaying extreme mood swings

Precipitating Factors and Warning Signs

Precipitating factors are stressful events that can trigger a suicidal crisis in a vulnerable person. Examples include:

  • End of a relationship or marriage
  • Death of a loved one
  • An arrest
  • Serious financial problems
  • Warning signs are behaviors that indicate that someone may be at immediate risk for suicide.
     

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

1-800-273-TALK (8255)

The Lifeline is a 24-hour toll-free phone line for people in suicidal crisis or emotional distress.

An online chat option is also available.

The following list is from the SPRC Risk & Protective Factors page.

Risk Factors

Risk factors are characteristics of a person or his or her environment that increase the likelihood that he or she will die by suicide (i.e., suicide risk).

Major risk factors for suicide include:

  • Prior suicide attempt(s)
  • Misuse and abuse of alcohol or other drugs
  • Mental disorders, particularly depression and other mood disorders
  • Access to lethal means
  • Knowing someone who died by suicide, particularly a family member
  • Social isolation
  • Chronic disease and disability
  • Lack of access to behavioral health care

Risk Factors Can Vary Across Groups

Risk factors can vary by age group, culture, sex, and other characteristics. For example:

  • Stress resulting from prejudice and discrimination (family rejection, bullying, violence) is a known risk factor for suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth.
  • The historical trauma suffered by American Indians and Alaska Natives (resettlement, destruction of cultures and economies) contributes to the high suicide rate in this population.
  • For men in the middle years, stressors that challenge traditional male roles, such as unemployment and divorce, have been identified as important risk factors.

Protective Factors

Protective factors are personal or environmental characteristics that help protect people from suicide.

Major protective factors for suicide include:

  • Effective behavioral health care
  • Connectedness to individuals, family, community, and social institutions
  • Life skills (including problem solving skills and coping skills, ability to adapt to change)
  • Self-esteem and a sense of purpose or meaning in life
  • Cultural, religious, or personal beliefs that discourage suicide

Myth: Suicidal people are fully intent on dying. Nothing others do or say can help.
Fact: Suicide is preventable. Most suicidal people desperately want to live; they are just unable to see alternatives to their problems.


Myth: Suicide happens without warning.
Fact: There are almost always warning signs, but others are often unaware of the significance of the warnings or unsure about what to do.  Although a significant number of suicide attempts occur within a short period of time following a triggering episode, these individuals may have given prior warning signs.


Myth: People who talk about suicide do not die by suicide.
Fact: Most people who die by suicide have talked about or given definite warning signs of their suicidal intentions.


Myth: Improvement in a suicidal person means the danger is over.
Fact: Many suicides occur several months after the beginning of improvement, when a person has energy to act on suicidal thoughts.


Myth: Suicide is more common in lower socio-economic groups.
Fact: Suicide cuts across social and economic boundaries. However, we know that people with a high school diploma only are overrepresented among those who die by suicide, and this may correlate with a lower economic status.


Myth: All suicidal individuals are depressed.
Fact: We know that about half of people who die by suicide have some type of mental health disorder, depression being prominent among them. Some who die by suicide may have had mental disorders that were not diagnosed. However, many people who die by suicide do not have mental disorders.


Myth: Young people are more likely than old people to die by suicide.
Fact: Teens and young adults aged 15-24 have the highest rates of emergency department visits or hospitalizations due to self-injury. However, older persons are more likely to die by suicide: those 45-54 and those 85+ have the highest rates of death by suicide.


Myth: Asking “Are you thinking about killing yourself?" may trigger a person to make a suicide attempt.
Fact: Asking direct, caring questions about suicide will often minimize a person’s anxiety and act as a deterrent to suicidal behavior.

This page from the Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC) offers definitions of terms commonly used in suicide prevention. Many of these terms are also used in other public health and behavioral health contexts, where they may be defined somewhat differently.

Assessment

A comprehensive evaluation, usually performed by a clinician, to confirm suspected suicide risk in a patient, estimate the immediate danger, and decide on a course of treatment. Also see Screening. To learn more, read SPRC's Suicide Screening and Assessment.

At-risk

Characterized by a high level of risk for suicide and/or a low level of protection against suicide risk factors. An individual displaying warning signs of suicide would also be considered at risk. Note that most members of any at-risk group will not display warning signs, attempt suicide, or die by suicide. Also see Warning signsRisk factor, and Protective factor.

Behavioral health

Emotional and mental health, and individual actions that affect wellness. Behavioral health problems include substance abuse and addiction, serious psychological distress and mental disorders, and suicidal behaviors. “The term is also used to describe the service systems encompassing the promotion of emotional health; the prevention of mental and substance use disorders, substance use, and related problems; treatments and services for mental and substance use disorders; and recovery support.” [SAMHSA (2011). Leading change: A plan for SAMHSA’s roles and actions 2011–2014. HHS Publication (SMA) 11-4629. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.]

Cluster

“A group of suicides or suicide attempts, or both, that occurs closer together in time and space than would normally be expected in a given community.” [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1988). Recommendations for a community plan for the prevention and containment of suicide clusters. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, August 19, 1988, 37(S-6), 1-12]. Some researchers divide clusters into (1) “mass clusters,” in which “suicides occur closer in time than would be expected by chance following media coverage,” and (2) “point clusters,” which “involve suicides or episodes of suicidal behavior localized in both time and geographic space, often occurring within a small community or institutional setting.” [Niedzwiedz, C., Haw, C., Hawton, K., and Platt, S. (2014). The definition and epidemiology of clusters of suicidal behavior: A systematic review. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior44(5), 569-581.] Also see Contagion.

Connectedness

“The degree to which a person or group is socially close, interrelated, or shares resources with other persons or groups. This definition encompasses the nature and quality of connections both within and between multiple levels of the social ecology, including connectedness between individuals, connectedness of individuals and their families to community organizations, and connectedness among community organizations and social institutions.” [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Strategic direction for the prevention of suicidal behavior: Promoting individual, family, and community connectedness to prevent suicidal behavior. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Contagion

Suicide risk associated with the knowledge of another person’s suicidal behavior, either first-hand or through the media. Suicides that may be at least partially caused by contagion are sometimes called “copycat suicides.” Contagion can contribute to a suicide cluster. Also see Cluster.

Copycat suicide

See Contagion.

Evidence-based practices

Suicide prevention activities that have been found effective by rigorous scientific evaluation. See Evidence-Based Prevention page.

Gatekeeper training

Programs that teach individuals who routinely have personal contact with many others in their community (i.e., “gatekeepers”) to recognize and respond to people at potential risk of suicide. To learn more, take SPRC's online course, Choosing and Implementing a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training Program.

Help-seeking

Seeking care or assistance for emotional distress, a mental health condition, or suicidal thoughts.

Indicated intervention

An activity that targets individuals who exhibit symptoms or have been identified by screening or assessment as being at risk for suicidal behavior. For example, safety planning for people who have reported thinking about suicide is an indicated intervention. Also see Selective intervention and Universal intervention.

Intervention

An activity or set of activities designed to decrease risk factors or increase protective factors. Also see Universal interventionSelective intervention, and Indicated intervention. To learn more, take SPRC's online course, A Strategic Planning Approach to Suicide Prevention.

Lethal means

Methods of suicide with especially high fatality rates (e.g., firearms, jumping from bridges or tall buildings). Also see Means.

Lethal means restriction

See Means restriction.

Lived experience

"Knowledge gained from having lived through a suicide attempt or suicidal crisis." [National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention Suicide Attempt Survivors Task Force. (2014). The way forward: Pathways to hope, recovery, and wellness with insights from lived experience. Washington, D.C.: National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention.]

Check out our page on Lived Experience to learn more about how we engage people and stories of lived experience in Wisconsin!

Means

Objects, instruments, and methods used by people in suicide attempts (e.g., firearms, poisons, suffocation, jumping from buildings or bridges).

Means restriction

“Techniques, policies, and procedures designed to reduce access or availability to means and methods of deliberate self-harm.” [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention. (2012). 2012 National strategy for suicide prevention: Goals and objectives for action. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.]

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI)

Injury inflicted by a person on himself or herself deliberately, but without intent to die.

Postvention

Activities following a suicide to help alleviate the suffering and emotional distress of the survivors, and prevent additional trauma and contagion. See also Suicide loss survivor and Contagion.

Prevention

Activities implemented prior to the onset of an adverse health outcome (e.g., dying by suicide) and designed to reduce the potential that the adverse health outcome will take place.

Protective factor

An attribute, characteristic, or environmental exposure that decreases the likelihood of a person’s developing a disease or injury (e.g., attempting or dying by suicide) given a specific level of risk. For example, depression elevates a person’s risk of suicide, but a depressed person with good social connections and coping skills is less likely to attempt or die by suicide than a person with the same level of depression who lacks social connections and coping skills. Social connections and coping skills are protective factors, buffering the suicide risk associated with depression and thus helping to protect against suicide. Also see Risk factor (below).

Risk factor

“Any attribute, characteristic, or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury” (e.g., attempting or dying by suicide). [World Health Organization. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/risk_factors/en/ ]. Risk factors do not necessarily cause a disease or injury, but can contribute to negative health outcomes like suicide or suicide attempts in combination with other risk factors. For example, depression, access to firearms, and substance abuse disorders (individually and in combination) increase the likelihood of attempting or dying by suicide, although most people with these risk factors do not attempt suicide. Risk factors should not be confused with warning signs. Also see Protective factor and Warning signs.

Safe messaging

Media or personal communications about suicide or related issues that do not increase the risk of suicidal behavior in vulnerable people, and that may increase help-seeking behavior and support for suicide prevention efforts. To learn more, go to the National Action Alliance Framework for Successful Messaging and Recommendations for Reporting on Suicide.

Screening

A procedure in which a standardized tool, instrument, or protocol is used to identify individuals who may be at risk for suicide. Also see Assessment. To learn more, read SPRC's Suicide Screening and Assessment.

Selective intervention

Activities targeting a group whose members are generally at higher than average risk for an adverse health condition (e.g., suicidal behaviors) regardless of whether individual members of the group display symptoms or have been screened for the condition. For example, suicide prevention interventions targeted at victims of intimate partner violence is a selective intervention because intimate partner violence is associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors. Also see Indicated intervention and Universal intervention.

Suicidal behaviors

Suicide, suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and planning/preparation done with the intent of attempting or dying by suicide.

Suicidal crisis

A suicide attempt or an incident in which an emotionally distraught person seriously considers or plans to imminently attempt to take their own life.

Suicidal ideation

“Thoughts of engaging in suicide-related behavior.” [Crosby, A.E., Ortega, L., Melanson, C. (2011). Self-directed violence surveillance: Uniform definitions and recommended data elements. Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.]

Suicide

“Death caused by self-directed injurious behavior with any intent to die as a result of the behavior.” [Crosby, A.E., Ortega, L., and Melanson, C. (2011). Self-directed violence surveillance: Uniform definitions and recommended data elements. Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.]

Suicide assessment

See Assessment.

Suicide attempt

“A nonfatal, self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with any intent to die as a result of the behavior. A suicide attempt may or may not result in injury.” [Crosby, A.E., Ortega, L., Melanson, C. (2011). Self-directed violence surveillance: Uniform definitions and recommended data elements. Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.]

Suicide attempt survivor

A person who has attempted suicide, but did not die. Also see Suicide loss survivor (below)

Find resources for attempt survivors here. 

Suicide loss survivor

A person who has lost a family member, friend, classmate, or colleague to suicide. Sometimes called “suicide survivor,” although the term “suicide loss survivor” is often favored to avoid confusion with "suicide attempt survivor."

Find resources for loss survivors here.

Suicide plan

An individual’s thinking about a suicide attempt that includes elements such as a timeframe, method, and place.

Suicide screening

See Screening.

Suicide survivor

See Suicide loss survivor.

Universal intervention

An activity designed to prevent negative health outcomes (e.g., suicide attempts and suicides) in an entire population regardless of the risk status of members of that population. For example, a middle school life skills curriculum that includes coping and help-seeking skills is a universal intervention, since it would be directed at all the students in that middle school regardless of their level of risk for suicide. Also see Indicated intervention and Selective intervention.

Warning signs

Behaviors and symptoms that may indicate that a person is at immediate or serious risk for suicide or a suicide attempt. To learn more, visit our Warning Signs for Suicide page.

The SPRC maintains regularly updated data on the magnitude and patterns of suicidal behavior in the United States. See their Scope of the Problem page for more information. 

Suicide Deaths in the United States

Suicide rates by sex, homicide and suicide, and the geographic distribution of suicide.

Suicide by Age

Suicide rates by age, trends over time, and the leading causes of death by age group.

Suicidal Thoughts and Suicide Attempts

Rates of suicidal ideation and attempts by age and sex.

Means of Suicide

Data on the methods people use to end their lives.

Racial and Ethnic Disparities

Suicide rates and patterns among racial and ethnic groups.

Costs of Suicide

The costs of suicidal behaviors—and the savings that can result from preventing these behaviors—can help convince policymakers and other stakeholders that suicide prevention is an investment that will save dollars as well as lives.

Frequently Asked Questions

Suicide is when people direct violence at themselves with the intent to end their lives, and they die because of their actions. It’s best to avoid the use of terms like “committing suicide” or a “successful suicide” when referring to a death by suicide as these terms often carry negative connotations.

suicide attempt is when people harm themselves with the intent to end their lives, but they do not die because of their actions.

Suicide does not discriminate. People of all genders, ages, and ethnicities can be at risk.

The main risk factors for suicide are:

  • A prior suicide attempt
  • Depression and other mental health disorders
  • Substance abuse disorder
  • Family history of a mental health or substance abuse disorder
  • Family history of suicide
  • Family violence, including physical or sexual abuse
  • Having guns or other firearms in the home
  • Being in prison or jail
  • Being exposed to others’ suicidal behavior, such as a family member, peer, or media figure
  • Medical illness
  • Being between the ages of 15 and 24 years or over age 60 

Even among people who have risk factors for suicide, most do not attempt suicide. It remains difficult to predict who will act on suicidal thoughts.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), men are more likely to die by suicide than women, but women are more likely to attempt suicide. Men are more likely to use more lethal methods, such as firearms or suffocation. Women are more likely than men to attempt suicide by poisoning.

Also per the CDC, certain demographic subgroups are at higher risk. For example, American Indian and Alaska Native youth and middle-aged persons have the highest rate of suicide, followed by non-Hispanic White middle-aged and older adult males. African Americans have the lowest suicide rate, while Hispanics have the second lowest rate. The exception to this is younger children. African American children under the age of 12 have a higher rate of suicide than White children. While younger preteens and teens have a lower rate of suicide than older adolescents, there has been a significant rise in the suicide rate among youth ages 10 to 14. Suicide ranks as the second leading cause of death for this age group, accounting for 425 deaths per year and surpassing the death rate for traffic accidents, which is the most common cause of death for young people.

Looking for more data and statistics? For the most recent statistics on suicide and more information about risk, please visit the CDC website at www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/suicide/index.html.

Most people who have the risk factors for suicide will not kill themselves. However, the risk for suicidal behavior is complex. Research suggests that people who attempt suicide may react to events, think, and make decisions differently than those who do not attempt suicide. These differences happen more often if a person also has a disorder such as depressionsubstance abuseanxietyborderline personality disorder, and psychosis. Risk factors are important to keep in mind; however, someone who has warning signs of suicide may be in more danger and require immediate attention.

The behaviors listed below may be signs that someone is thinking about suicide.

  • Talking about wanting to die or wanting to kill themselves
  • Talking about feeling empty, hopeless, or having no reason to live
  • Planning or looking for a way to kill themselves, such as searching online, stockpiling pills, or newly acquiring potentially lethal items (e.g., firearms, ropes)
  • Talking about great guilt or shame
  • Talking about feeling trapped or feeling that there are no solutions
  • Feeling unbearable pain, both physical or emotional
  • Talking about being a burden to others
  • Using alcohol or drugs more often
  • Acting anxious or agitated
  • Withdrawing from family and friends
  • Changing eating and/or sleeping habits
  • Showing rage or talking about seeking revenge
  • Taking risks that could lead to death, such as reckless driving
  • Talking or thinking about death often
  • Displaying extreme mood swings, suddenly changing from very sad to very calm or happy
  • Giving away important possessions
  • Saying goodbye to friends and family
  • Putting affairs in order, making a will

Suicidal thoughts or actions are a sign of extreme distress and an alert that someone needs help. Any warning sign or symptom of suicide should not be ignored. All talk of suicide should be taken seriously and requires attention. Threatening to die by suicide is not a normal response to stress and should not be taken lightly.

Asking someone about suicide is not harmful. There is a common myth that asking someone about suicide can put the idea into their head. This is not true. Several studies examining this concern have demonstrated that asking people about suicidal thoughts and behavior does not induce or increase such thoughts and experiences. In fact, asking someone directly, “Are you thinking of killing yourself,” can be the best way to identify someone at risk for suicide.

Health care providers can help prevent suicide when they understand the risk factors and use evidence-based treatments and therapies. In addition, The Joint Commission recommends screening all patients in all medical settings for suicide risk using validated, population and setting-specific tools.

Clinicians should be advised that it is no longer acceptable to “contract for safety” with patients. Safety planning for managing future suicidal thoughts and means restriction (removing or ensuring safe storage of potentially lethal items) have been proven to be effective ways of preventing suicide. Health care providers can find educational resources on the Zero Suicide website and news about the latest research on the NIMH website at www.nimh.nih.gov.

Knowing how to get help for a friend posting suicidal messages on social media can save a life. Many social media sites have a process to report suicidal content and get help for the person posting the message. In addition, many of the social media sites use their analytic capabilities to identify and help report suicidal posts. Each offers different options on how to respond if you see concerning posts about suicide. For example:

  • Facebook Suicide Prevention webpage can be found at www.facebook.com/help/594991777257121/[use the search term “suicide” or “suicide prevention”].
  • Instagram uses automated tools in the app to provide resources, which can also be found online at https://help.instagram.com [use the search term, “suicide,” self-injury,” or “suicide prevention”]
  • Snapchat’s Support provides guidance at https://support.snapchat.com [use the search term, “suicide” or “suicide prevention”]  
  • Tumblr Counseling and Prevention Resources webpage can be found at https://tumblr.zendesk.com[use the search term “counseling” or “prevention,” then click on “Counseling and prevention resources”].
  • Twitter’s Best Practices in Dealing With Self-Harm and Suicide at https://support.twitter.com [use the search term “suicide,” “self-harm,” or “suicide prevention”].
  • YouTube’s Safety Center webpage can be found at https://support.google.com/youtube [use the search term “suicide and self injury”].

If you see messages or live streaming suicidal behavior on social media, call 911 or contact the toll-free National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1–800–273–TALK (8255), or text the Crisis Text Line (text HOME to 741741) available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals can contact the Lifeline via TTY at 1–800–799–4889. All calls are confidential. This service is available to everyone. People—even strangers—have saved lives by being vigilant.

Effective suicide intervention practices are based on research findings and tested to see how various programs benefit various specific groups of people. For example, research has shown that borderline personality disorder is a risk factor for suicidal behavior, and there are programs that are effective in reducing suicide attempts.

Among its research on suicide, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported research on strategies that have worked well for those who have mental health conditions related to suicide such as depression and anxiety. These mainly include types of psychotherapies (such as cognitive behavior therapy or dialectical behavioral therapy). NIMH also conducts research on suicide risk screening tools for health care clinicians to use as a guide for screening patients for suicide risk.

For basic information about psychotherapies and medications, visit the NIMH website (www.nimh.nih.gov/health). For the most up-to-date information on medications, side effects, and warnings, visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website.

Suicide is often not discussed in medical visits where physical symptoms are more of the focus. If you have thoughts of suicide, tell your health care provider. Asking questions and providing information to your doctor or health care provider can improve your care. Talking with your doctor builds trust and leads to better results, quality, safety, and satisfaction. Visit the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality website for tips at www.ahrq.gov/patients-consumers.

As the government lead in the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention’s Prioritized Research Agenda for Suicide Prevention, NIMH has helped shape priorities in suicide prevention research. For example, NIMH-supported researchers continue to study:

  • Long-term risk factors, such as childhood events like trauma
  • Immediate risk factors, such as mental health and recent life events
  • How genes can either increase risk of suicide or make someone more resilient to loss and hardships
  • Treatments for patients with treatment-resistant depression and active suicidal ideation (e.g., ketamine infusions)
  • Instruments to detect suicidal ideation and behavior

Visit the NIMH website to learn more about NIMH’s research priorities and recent research on suicide prevention.

For additional information about suicide prevention efforts, visit Zero Suicide: http://zerosuicide.sprc.org.

Clinical trials are research studies that look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases and conditions. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Although individual participants may benefit from being part of a clinical trial, participants should be aware that the primary purpose of a clinical trial is to gain new scientific knowledge so that others may be better helped in the future.

Researchers at NIMH and around the country conduct many studies with patients and healthy volunteers. We have new and better treatment options today because of what clinical trials uncovered years ago. Be part of tomorrow’s medical breakthroughs. Talk to your doctor about clinical trials, their benefits and risks, and whether one is right for you.

  • For more information about clinical trials conducted at NIMH, visit Join A Study.
  • For questions about participating in research studies that are being conducted at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and where to find them, contact prpl@mail.cc.nih.gov.
  • For a listing of clinical trials being conducted around the country by NIH and others, be sure to check the www.clinicaltrials.gov website.

Suggested Reading


  • An Unquiet Mind: A Memoir of Moods and Madness.
    by Kay Redfield Jamison, Ph.D., Alfred A. Knopf, 1995
  • Darkness Visible.
    by William Styron, Random House, 1990
  • Demystifying Psychiatry: A Resource for Patients and Families.
    by Charles Zorumski and Eugene Rubin, Oxford University Press, 2010
  • History of Suicide: Voluntary Death in Western Culture (Medicine and Culture) 
    by George Minois, Lydia Cochrane (translator)
  • Lay My Burden Down: Unraveling Suicide and the Mental Health Crisis Among African-Americans.
    by Alvin F. Poussaint, M.D., and Amy Alexander, Beacon Press, 2001
  • Myths About Suicide
    by Thomas Joiner
  • Night Falls Fast: Understanding Suicide
    by Kay Redfield Jamison - published by Knopf (1999)
  • No One Saw My Pain: Why Teens Kill Themselves. 
    by Andrew Slaby and Lili Frank Garfinkle, W.W. Norton and Company, 1995
  • November of the Soul: The Enigma of Suicide. 
    by George Howe Colt, Scribner 2006
  • Suicide in Later Life: Recognizing the Warning Signs
    by Nancy J. Osgood
  • Suicide: The Forever Decision
    by Paul Quinnett, QPR Institute, 1992
  • The Noonday Demon: An Atlas of Depression. 
  • The Suicidal Mind
    by Edwin Shneidman, Oxford University Press, 1996
    by Andrew Solomon, Scribner, 2001
  • Understanding Depression: What We Know and What You Can Do About It.
    by J. Raymond DePaulo Jr., M.D., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002
  • Why People Die by Suicide
    by Thomas Joiner
  • A Long-Shadowed Grief: Suicide and its Aftermath.
    by Harold Ivan Smith, Cowley Publications 2006
  • A Mourner’s Kaddish: Suicide and the Rediscovery of Hope
    by James Clarke, Novalis, 2006
  • And She Was a Christian
    by Peter Preus and Karen Knutson, Northwest Publishing, 2011
  • Finding Your Way After the Suicide of Someone You Love.
    by David B. Biebel, D.Min., & Suzanne L. Foster, M.A., Zondervan, 2005
  • Preventing Suicide: A Handbook for Pastors, Chaplains, and Pastoral Counselors
    by Karen Mason, InterVarsity Press, 2014
  • Take the Dimness of My Soul Away: Healing After a Loved One's Suicide. 
    by William A. Ritter, Morehouse Publishing, 2004
  • After Suicide: A Ray of Hope 
    by Eleanora "Betsy" Ross - published by Lynn Publications, Iowa City, IA (1986)
  • Counseling Suicidal People
    by Paul Quinnett,  QPR Institute, 2012
  • DBT Skills Training Manual 
    by Marsha M. Linehan PhD ABPP
  • Dead Reckoning: A Therapist Confronts His Own Grief 
    by David C. Treadway, Ph.D. - published by Basic Books, NY (1996)
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Suicidology
    by Maurizio Pompili and Roberto Tatarelli, Hogrefe Publishing, 2011
  • Grief After Suicide: Understanding the Consequences and Caring for the Survivors.
    by John R. Jordan, Ph.D. and John McIntosh, Ph.D., editors, Routledge, 2011
  • Managing Suicidal Risk
    by David A Jobes and Edwin Schneidman,  The Guilford Press, 2006
  • Grieving a Suicide: A Loved One’s Search for Comfort, Answers and Hope
    by Albert Hsu, InterVarsity Press, 2002
  • Suicide and its Aftermath: Understanding and Counseling the Survivors.
    by Edward Dunne, John McIntosh, and Karen Dunne-Maxim (Eds.), W.W. Norton and Company, 1987
  • The Practical Art of Suicide Assessment: A guide for Mental Health Professionals and Substance Abuse Counselors
    by Shawn Christopher Shea, John Wiley & Sons, 2002
  • Therapeutic and Legal Issues for Therapists Who Have Survived a Client Suicide: Breaking the Silence. 
    by Kayla Miriyam Weiner, The Haworth Press, Inc., 2005
  • Breaking the Silence
    by Mariette Hartley - published by Mass Market, NY (1991)